Three Essential Travel Destinations For a Business Student

If you run through the districts at the heart of the world’s great financial centres, few, in all fairness, are held to be the most interesting places to visit for the average tourist. But popular perceptions can so often be misleading. If you’re a student in the first year of a BS in business administration or a group of friends about to complete their business administration degrees, for instance, you could hardly hope for a more fascinating or valuable trip – after all, it makes sense to get a feel of what they’re all about before you find yourself there for real!

And it’s to that end that this roundup of three of the world’s essential travel destinations for a business student was put together….

Hong Kong Island

There’s no two ways about it, Hong Kong is on the up. In 2008 Forbes Magazine ranked the city as number two in its list of the ten most economically influential and powerful cities in the world (just behind London and above the mighty New York!)

But Hong Kong’s far from being just a sterile destination for business travellers: there are any number of interesting quarters – from the sights, sounds and gastronomic delights of Temple Street Night Market to the non-stop commerce of Stanley Market – which demand to be explored. What’s more whether seen from the heights of Victoria Park or from out across the bay, there’s a surreal beauty to its sparkling skyline that’s quite breathtaking.

Wall Street

Whether in literature, on screen or in popular imagination, Wall Street is simply synonymous with finance. Running east from Broadway to South Street on the East River through the heart of the city’s financial district and home to the New York Stork Exchange, it is still the central nervous system of the global economy. And you only have to stand, gazing up at the vertiginous buildings that line this bustling thoroughfare to feel its aura.

While it’s hardly held by visitors to New York to be one of Manhattan’s most interesting neighbourhoods, scratch beneath the gleaming, corporate surface and there’s more than enough to keep you busy. The first stop for visitors tends to be Arturo Di Modica’s “Charging Bull” statue; but the Art Deco splendour of 20 Exchange Place is well worth a look, along with other skyscrapers like the American International Building and 40 Wall Street, while Trinity Churchyard is an oasis of calm in amongst all the hustle and bustle – and a great place to stop for a sandwich!

The City of London

Like New York’s Wall Street, the City of London is a bona fide financial institution. If the bowler hats and canes are no longer used by the bankers and brokers, and the brash high-rises now soar over their older, more restrained counterparts, then there’s still something of the sense of grandeur and class about an area that used to be the administrative and financial heart of the world.

Standout monuments include the Natwest Tower, and Sir Norman Foster’s gleaming ‘Gherkin’ building; then of course there’s the Bank of England (and its fascinating museum – where you even get to lift a gold bar!) There’s plenty more in the way of history, too, whether it’s in the form of the majestic St. Paul’s Cathedral and the London Stone or the wonderfully antiquated Ceremony of the Keys at the Tower of London.

Surreal Estate

Over the last few months, property showrooms has been approached by a number of overseas estate agents asking them to list some really unusual properties. Although the company’s core business is selling investment properties on off-plan developments as well as overseas domestic properties, they didn’t flinch when asked to advertise a mountain for sale in Cyprus; the company even took in their stride a request to sell an entire hamlet in Spain.

A spokesman for the company said: “If faith can move mountains, I’m sure property showrooms can sell an enormous hill in Cyprus”.

Be it a mountain in Cyprus or an international airport in Poland, it would seem that if you have the money you can buy just about anything that takes your fancy. So keep buying those lottery tickets, after all, you never know, one day you could be the proud owner of a piece of prime surreal estate.

Here is a rundown of property showrooms current offbeat real estate:

An Uphill Task

Presenting a lovely pine covered mountain for sale in Cyprus. Only 25 minutes drive from the Cypriot capital, Nicosia. This piece of real estate would be ideal for anyone who wants to go up in the world… a social climber maybe. Furthermore, it has the potential for residential development and is close to existing ski resorts.

Home On The (Firing) Range

Fancy an ex-military village in Poland? The village has a capacity for over 1,000 families. There are 82.78 hectares of land, it has its own lake and features barrack style buildings. It could be a great investment for anyone who wants to be a soldier but can’t be bothered with all that army discipline nonsense….and if you like “shoot em up” games, forget your X-box or PlayStation…it comes with its very own firing range!

Animal Attraction

How about a 400 hectare game reserve and farm in South Africa? It comes with extensive accommodation for approximately 500 people. The wildlife includes 70 impala, 34 zebra, 6 kudu, 12 hartebeeste, 45 blesbok, 30 mountain reed buck, warthog, European boar, bushbuck, duiker, caracal, monkeys, baboons and porcupines. Just think about it, you could wander around all day pretending to be David Attenborough.

Be Lord Of All You Survey

Here’s a really cute Spanish hamlet near Baza, in Granada Province, Spain. It could be the perfect buy for someone with a very big family. An entire hamlet, complete with houses, bar, school, church and various outbuildings set in 250,000 square meters of land surrounded by the Baza National Park. This could be a great buy for anyone wanting a bit more control over their life. Imagine the luxury of being able to evict your neighbours for any reason whatsoever!

Bulgar Nights

This is the biggest nightclub on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, with a capacity for 6000 people and 2600sqm of floor area set on two levels. The property might suit someone with a big circle of friends and a penchant for boogying the night away. The nightclub is situated just 700 m from the beach; so if the dancing gets too much, you can nip out and soak your feet in the surf.

New Departures

Buy this airport in Poland and you will really know that you have arrived. Offers are invited for a Maximum 49% stake in this modern international airport. Only opened 3 years ago, it already needs to double its capacity. After you have bought the airport, you could always start your own airline company…Fly Disjointed Airways and arrive in several destinations at the same time!

Something To A-Spire To

This manor house in Portugal has its own chapel. It could be the answer to your prayers. Dating from 1932, according to the local estate agent:”In the chapel are many religious sculptures plus Saint Maria. Here the silence is stunning. This manor house and chapel is like a museum, in all corners of the house is something to see.”This large property could be run as a bed & breakfast, as it is near to the much visited Porto do Mos Nature Reserve. The property has plenty of room for your family and friends to congregate.

Healthy Profits?

Imagine owning your very own private hospital in Germany. No more queuing at the doctor’s surgery catching everyone else’s germs! The hospital has a total area of 1.024 m². It offers among other facilities, a physiotherapy department, a pharmacy and it even has a psychotherapy unit. It would be crazy to ignore this tempting business opportunity.

A Close Look at the Business Records Exception When You Are Sued for Debt

Does the business records exception to the hearsay rule allow debt collectors to collect on debts that were generated by other businesses?

As I have often pointed out, debt collectors, by their very nature, are not the entities that created the records concerning the debt for which they are suing defendants. Rather, they bought the supposed debt from someone else: another debt collector or the original creditor (who did create any records there might be). This creates a problem for the debt collector when it brings suit: any records it may attempt to use to prove the debt are “hearsay.”

What Is Hearsay?

Hearsay is sometimes referred to as “he said, she said,” but in legal terminology it is simply a statement that was made out of court that is trying to be used in court to prove the thing that was said. For example, Bill overhears Sue say, “Jim’s eyes are green.” If Bill later attempts to prove that Jim’s eyes are green by testifying he heard Sue say so, that would be hearsay.

Business Records Exception to Hearsay

Business records regarding how a debt was created or maintained are obviously hearsay, since they were created outside of court and cannot in any event be subjected to oath. Under certain circumstances, however, they are allowed as evidence because they are considered particularly trustworthy. They are considered trustworthy because the business that created them probably depended upon them to be trustworthy and probably created specific methods of keeping them so that they would remain trustworthy. After all, a business does rely on its records created by various people over time in order to fulfill its obligations and collect money due to it.

Debt collectors take this simple insight and pervert it grotesquely.

Requirements of the Business Records Exception

The business records exception requires that the party seeking to introduce business records have been created during the normal course of business, in known and predictable ways that guarantee accuracy. And it requires that the party seeking to introduce the records be able to prove these “predicates” (requirements) based on personal knowledge.

What Debt Collectors Get

Debt collectors are generally provided electronic records of debt when they buy the debt, and it might be that the records were honestly and accurately made. Of course it might not be, too. That’s the whole point of the business records exception-that someone gets to look the record keeper in the eye and make sure that the business in question was set up to keep the records straight in the first place. Otherwise the debt collector could “launder” bad debts by buying them and their records and simply claiming that the records were good.

Naturally, this fundamental flaw will not stop the debt collector from making the argument that their records (that they got from another business) are business records because they (the debt collector) relied upon them and kept them in the “ordinary course of business.”

Ordinary Course of Business

Some courts have held that debt collectors cannot keep records in the ordinary course of business. That’s because debt collectors have no ordinary course of business in the sense that would make the records reliable. They do not provide any services, and have no obligations to fulfill, for the consumer. Instead, debt collectors exist to collect debts that are either disputed or not being paid for some other reason. And that means that every business purpose they have is promoted by claiming the debts are good, obligations of the original creditor have been made and kept, etc. There is nothing to keep the debt collector from inflating the obligation or claiming it was due from the wrong person.

And in fact debt collectors are notorious for doing just that.

And of course the debt collectors are still not able to testify regarding the integrity of the records before the debt was purchased.


In order to show the business records were legitimate, a debt collector needs to introduce evidence from the original creditor regarding the integrity of the debt. For some reason, they seem unwilling or unable to do this. Perhaps it is because a condition of buying the debt for a few cents on the dollar is that the debt collector not require the original creditor to expend any more of its resources on what it has considered a bad debt. Or perhaps it is because it just isn’t cost-effective to do that. In any event, debt collectors very rarely attempt to use business records from original creditors.

Another Problem the Debt Collectors Have

Another problem the debt collectors have is that they often have mere fragmentary records: (digital) copies of a few statements or the like. Of course these records are nowhere near enough to support the debt that the collector is claiming. Instead, the collector introduces the statement of its record keeper that, “based on a review of its records,” a certain amount of money is due from the consumer. It’s best to break that testimony into its constituent parts for analysis.

  • First, the debt collector doesn’t have records which show that the consumer ever owed the money;
  • Second, it didn’t create the records that came along with the debt in the first place, so it uses its “record custodian” to say that such records as it kept were kept in the ordinary course of business; and
  • Third, its records custodian then testifies to the substance of records that are not there, to wit, the balance of the debt owed and the terms of the debt.

It almost seems surreal, but this is indeed the argument they make. Remember though, that a record custodian testifies about the record keeping, not about the content of the records. That is, the record custodian is supposed to testify (from personal knowledge) that the records were created in the ordinary course of business under circumstances suggesting honesty. Then, if the debt collector is able to do that (which they are not, usually), the records are introduced as evidence. At that point, the records must “speak for themselves,” and there is no point for a records custodian to testify what they say. A records custodian is not allowed to testify as to what records that are not present before the court say. There is obviously nothing about this procedure which suggests that records were made and kept in a way designed to insure their honesty. Rather, they are presented to the court in a way that almost insures their dishonesty.

A Violation of the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act?

I have taken the position that this sort of use of the business records exception is an unfair debt collection practice under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act because it attempts to cloak non-existent or questionable records with the mantle of a hearsay exception designed to guarantee accuracy. Most people who are not familiar with the rules of evidence would not see through the deception.